A review of the logic of

New data results in new theories, and theories inspire experiments which are designed to test them This cyclic process propels science forwards. Any new theory must displace an old one, and each new theory therefore needs abundant evidence in its favour.

A review of the logic of

Random's behavior[ edit ] Boolos' third clarifying remark explains Random's behavior as follows: This does not state if the coin flip is for each question, or each "session", that is the entire series of questions. If interpreted as being a single random selection which lasts for the duration of the session, Rabern and Rabern show that the puzzle could be solved in only two questions; [5] this is because the counterfactual had been designed such that regardless of whether the answerer in this case Random was as a truth-teller or a false-teller, the truthful answer to Q would be clear.

Another possible interpretation of Random's behaviour when faced with the counterfactual is that he answers the question in its totality after flipping the coin in his head, but figures A review of the logic of the answer to Q in his previous state of mind, while the question is being asked.

Once again, this makes asking Random the counterfactual useless. If this is the case, a small change to the question above yields a question which will always elicit a meaningful answer from Random.

The change is as follows: If I asked you Q in your current mental state, would you say ja? By doing so the puzzle becomes completely trivial, that is, truthful answers can be easily obtained.

However, it assumes that Random has decided to lie or tell the truth prior to determining the correct answer to the question — something not stated by the puzzle or the clarifying remark. In both cases, the puzzle is solved. If A answers da, A is not Random: If A answers da, A is False.

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One can elegantly obtain truthful answers in the course of solving the original problem as clarified by Boolos "if the coin comes down heads, he speaks truly; if tails, falsely" without relying on any purportedly unstated assumptions, by making a further change to the question: If I asked you Q, and if you were answering as truthfully as you are answering this question, would you say ja?

Here, the only assumption is that Random, in answering the question, is either answering truthfully "speaks truthfully" OR is answering falsely "speaks falsely" which are explicitly part of the clarifications of Boolos. The original unmodified problem with Boolos' clarifications in this way can be seen to be the "Hardest Logical Puzzle Ever" with the most elegant and uncomplicated looking solution.

Rabern and Rabern suggest making an amendment to Boolos' original puzzle so that Random is actually random.

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The modification is to replace Boolos' third clarifying remark with the following: With this modification, the puzzle's solution demands the more careful god-interrogation given at the top of The Solution section.

Unanswerable questions and exploding god-heads[ edit ] In A simple solution to the hardest logic puzzle ever, [5] B. Rabern offer a variant of the puzzle: For example, if the question "Are you going to answer this question with the word that means no in your language? The paper represents this as his head exploding, " They have but one recourse — their heads explode.

In support of a two-question solution to the puzzle, the authors solve a similar simpler puzzle using just two questions.On his current tour, Logic addresses serious racial divides, but devotes even more time to charmingly goofball moments with fans.

What is Science and the Scientific Method?

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A review of the logic of

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Logic Models are a popular tool that can be used to help conceptualize your change effort. It does this by inviting the author(s) to articulate their understanding of the current situation, the changes they hope to bring about through their program effort, with and/for whom, the activities planned to contribute toward this change, the resources needed to put into the effort, assumptions they.

IC Review with Amateur Logic and Icom's Ray Novak