Monetary policy[ edit ] In a article,  educator and historian Henry Littlefield outlined an allegory in the book of the late 19th-century debate regarding monetary policy. According to this view, for instance, the Yellow Brick Road represents the gold standardand the silver slippers ruby in the film version represent the Silverite sixteen to one silver ratio dancing down the road. The City of Oz earns its name from the abbreviation of ounces "Oz" in which gold and silver are measured. The thesis achieved considerable popular interest and elaboration by many scholars in history, economics and other fields,  but that thesis has been challenged.
This was resolved on September 9,when the National Park Service entered into a year lease for the park land from the Samoan village councils. InCongress approved a thirty percent expansion on Olosega and Ofu islands.
The park encountered major damage. The visitor center and main office were destroyed but there was only one reported injury among the NPS staff and volunteers. It is the only part of the park American economy 2011 essay by car and attracts the vast majority of visitors to the area.
Accommodations are available on Ofu. Biodiversity[ edit ] Because of its remote location, diversity among the terrestrial species is low. Most plants arrived by chance from Southeast Asia.
Marine[ edit ] The surrounding waters are filled with a diversity of marine life, including sea turtleshumpback whalesover species of fish, and over coral species. Samoan geologic map with volcanic series labeled click on image to enlarge Samoan bathymetry Samoan tectonic setting The volcanic islands of Samoa that dominate the acreage of the national park are composed of shield volcanoes which developed from a hot spot on the Pacific Plateemerging sequentially from west to east.
Tutulia, the largest and oldest island, probably dates from the Pliocene Epoch, approximately 1. The islands are not made up of individual volcanoes, but are rather composed of overlapping and superimposed shield volcanoes built by basalt lava flows.
Much of the lava that erupted has since broken into angular fragments known as breccia. The volcanoes emerged from the intrusion of basaltic dikes from a rift zone on the ocean floor during the Pliocene Epoch, and were heavily eroded during the Pliocene and early Pleistocene Epochs, leaving behind trachyte plugs and exposed outcrops of volcanic tuff throughout the park.
This collapse produced sea cliffs over 3, feet high on the north side of the island, some of the highest such escarpments in the world. While the Samoan islands have not shown evidence of volcanism for many years, the Samoa hotspot beneath the islands continues to give indications of activity, with a submarine eruption detected just east of American Samoa in The lava flows forming the seamount have been dated by radiometric methods to between 5 and 50 years, during which time the seamount has risen 14, feet from the ocean floor.
Evidence exists of past submarine and surface landslides as a result of weathering and other forms of erosion of the rocks and soil making up the islands. The Masefau dike complex and talus breccias are remnants of this rifting. Development of the Taputapu, Pago, Alofau, and Olomoana shield domes followed long parallel fissures followed, but when the Pago and Alofau summits collapsed, calderas were formed.
Thick tuffs were deposited in the Pago caldera, and the southern rim was buried by lavas composed of picritic basaltsandesitesand trachytes.
A submarine shelf formed from the erosional runoff, allowing for the development of coral reefs before the island was submerged to feet. Sea level fluctuations continued in the Middle to Late Pleistocene. A barrier reef formed, was submerged feet, before emerging 50 feet, leaving sea caves above sea level.
Leone volcanics erupted in recent time generating tuff cones undersea, such as Aunuu Island, and cinder cones on land. The pahoehoe flows buried the submerged barrier reef, enlarging the island by 8 square miles.
The island has since emerged another 5 feet. Remnants of one half of the caldera, ponded flows, form the north center portion of Ofu.
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The steepest cliffs, feet high, are found on this north coast. The Ofu-Olosega island group formed along the same N. A foot cliff marks the north coast of this island. Remnants of these eruptions are found as inliers and monadnocks forming Mt. Volcanic activity renewed in the Middle Pleistocene along the same rift trend, with olivine basalt pahoehoe and aa flowing northward and southward from a point 8 miles west from the center of the island.
Pleistocene cinder cones trending east and west, are aligned along the center axis of the island. Examples include the olivine basalt pahoehoe which emerged from Mount Matavanu from toand the Mauga Afi chain of spatter cones of As a result of these and other stresses, the corals that form the reefs are projected to be lost by mid-century if carbon dioxide concentrations continue to rise at their current rate.It’s Time to Rethink America’s Corn System.
Only a tiny fraction of corn grown in the U.S. directly feeds the nation’s people, and much of that is from high-fructose corn syrup. Chapter 1, Before 1.
The Bill of Rights did not come from a desire to protect the liberties won in the American Revolution, but rather from a fear of the powers of the new federal government.
In (the most recent year for which data are available), the federal government spent over $58 billion on science and engineering research at American universities and research institutions. Review Essay January/February Issue United States Economics. Read More On Globalization Political the task of restoring some sense of proportion and balance to the winner-take-all political economy is essential if the American body politic is to recover from its current diseased condition.
In This Review. By Paul Pierson,Jacob S. American Economic Review - Issues Find articles in this journal.
Title. So far, the protests seem fueled by a collective sense that things in our economy are not fair or right. But the protesters have not done a good job of .