At the time, Dr Blumberg was actually researching the genetics of disease susceptibility. He did not set out to discover hepatitis, but his work led to a major breakthrough and increased understanding of the disease. In the s, Dr Blumberg started to explore whether inherited traits could make different groups of people more or less susceptible to the same disease. He and his team travelled around the world visiting native populations in remote locations to collect blood samples for analysis.
General Concepts Viral hepatitis has emerged as a major public health problem throughout the world affecting several hundreds of millions of people.
Viral hepatitis is a cause of considerable morbidity and mortality in the human population, both from acute infection and chronic sequelae which include, in the case of hepatitis B, C and D, chronic active hepatitis and cirrhosis.
Hepatocellular carcinoma which is one of the ten most common cancers worldwide, is closely associated with hepatitis B, and at least in some regions of the world with hepatitis C virus.
The hepatitis viruses include a range of unrelated and often highly unusual human pathogens. Hepatitis A virus Hepatitis A virus HAVclassified as hepatovirus, is a small, unenveloped symmetrical RNA virus which shares many of the characteristics of the picornavirus family, and is the cause of infectious or epidemic hepatitis transmitted by the fecal-oral route.
Hepatitis B virus is endemic in the human population and hyperendemic in many parts of the world. A number of variants of this virus have been described.
Natural hepadna virus infections also occur in other mammals including woodchucks, beechy ground squirrels and ducks. Hepatitis C virus Hepatitis C virus HCVis an enveloped single-stranded RNA virus which appears to be distantly related possibly in its evolution to flaviviruses, although hepatitis C is not transmitted by arthropod vectors.
Several genotypes have been identified. Infection with this more recently identified virus is common in many countries. Hepatitis C virus is associated with chronic liver disease and also with primary liver cancer in some countries.
This virus requires hepadna virus helper functions for propagation in hepatocytes, and is an important cause of acute and severe chronic liver damage in many regions of the world.
Hepatitis E virus Hepatitis E virus HEVthe cause of enterically-transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis, is another non-enveloped, single-stranded RNA virus, which shares many biophysical and biochemical features with caliciviruses.
The most similar genome to HEV is found in a plant virus, beet necrotic yellow vein virus, and there are similarities in the functional domains to rubella virus.
Stem cell transplants (SCTs) are important in treating many diseases. There are two main types of transplants. Autologous stem cells come from the person getting the cells. Allogeneic stem cells come from another person. The risk of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is high after allogeneic SCT. Even if a. This is called acute hepatitis B. Hepatitis B vaccine is the vaccine which is injected to the person who got infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV),it is used for the prevention of hepatitis B, It consists of a surface antigen (HBsAg), The vaccine contains one of the viral envelope proteins, hepatitis B. Adults who get affected by hepatitis B virus for a short time and then get cured is known as acute hepatitis B. Infection that lasts for a long time is known as chronic hepatitis B. Vaccine is the most preferred choice of doctors and physicians to protect people from the disease.
Final taxonomic classification is yet to be agreed upon. Hepatitis E virus is an important cause of large epidemics of acute hepatitis in the subcontinent of India, Central and Southeast Asia, the Middle East, parts of Africa and elsewhere.
The GB hepatitis viruses were cloned recently and preliminary genomic characterization shows that they are related to other positive-stranded RNA viruses with local regions of sequence identity with various flaviviruses.
Phylogenetic analysis of genomic sequences showed that these viruses are not genotypes of the hepatitis C virus. Hepatitis A Outbreaks of jaundice have been frequently described for many centuries and the term infectious hepatitis was coined in to describe the epidemic form of the disease.
Hepatitis A virus HAV is spread by the fecal-oral route and continues to be endemic throughout the world and hyperendemic in areas with poor standards of sanitation and hygiene.
For example, an outbreak of hepatitis A associated with the consumption of clams in Shanghai in resulted in almostcases. Hepatitis A has an incubation period of about four weeks.Annual trends in cause-specific underlying cause of death in subjects with chronic liver disease.
(A) Hepatitis C virus infection. (B) Alcoholic liver disease. (C) Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. (D) Hepatitis B virus infection. CVD, cardiovascular disease. Hepatitis B is a small enveloped DNA virus that poses a major hazard to human health.
The crystal structure of the T = 4 capsid has been solved at Å resolution, revealing a largely helical protein fold that is unusual for icosahedral viruses. Background: Hepatitis B is a global public health problem affecting approximately 10% of the world population.
Health care professionals (HCPs) are at an increased risk of acquiring hepatitis B infection due to occupational exposure. Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a serious chronic liver disease caused by the failure of viral clearance following acute HBV infection.
Despite the availability of effective prophylactic vaccines, the disease remains a serious global health concern, with estimated over million people worldwide currently living with this condition. Hepatitis B virus is a partially double stranded DNA virus. It is a species of the genus Orthohepadnavirus, and a member of the Hepadnaviridae family of viruses.
However this disease is not a new in human medical history because its presence in human remains of approximately 4 thousand years old has been confirmed.
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infects more than million people worldwide and is a common cause of liver disease and liver cancer. HBV, a member of the Hepadnaviridae family, is a small DNA virus with unusual features similar to retroviruses.