There may be many repercussions after the consumer makes purchase for example, a buyer may feel sorrow and guilt or dissatisfaction with his choice of a particular scooter, because of continuing maintenance expanses over it.
What is Social Marketing? It has evolved from a one-dimensional reliance on public service announcements to a more sophisticated approach which draws from successful techniques used by commercial marketers, termed "social marketing. This focus on the "consumer" involves in-depth research and constant re-evaluation of every aspect of the program.
In fact, research and evaluation together form the very cornerstone of the social marketing process. Social marketing was "born" as a discipline in the s, when Philip Kotler and Gerald Zaltman realized that the same marketing principles that were being used to sell products to consumers could be used to "sell" ideas, attitudes and behaviors.
Kotler and Andreasen define social marketing as "differing from other areas of marketing only with respect to the objectives of the marketer and his or her organization. Social marketing seeks to influence social behaviors not to benefit the marketer, but to benefit the target audience and the general society.
Like commercial marketing, the primary focus is on the consumer--on learning what people want and need rather than trying to persuade them to buy what we happen to be producing.
Marketing talks to the consumer, not about the product. The planning process takes this consumer focus into account by addressing the elements of the "marketing mix.
These are often called the "Four Ps" of marketing. Social marketing also adds a few more "P's. Product The social marketing "product" is not necessarily a physical offering.
A continuum of products exists, ranging from tangible, physical products e. In order to have a viable product, people must first perceive that they have a genuine problem, and that the product offering is a good solution for that problem.
The role of research here is to discover the consumers' perceptions of the problem and the product, and to determine how important they feel it is to take action against the problem. Price "Price" refers to what the consumer must do in order to obtain the social marketing product.
This cost may be monetary, or it may instead require the consumer to give up intangibles, such as time or effort, or to risk embarrassment and disapproval. If the costs outweigh the benefits for an individual, the perceived value of the offering will be low and it will be unlikely to be adopted.
However, if the benefits are perceived as greater than their costs, chances of trial and adoption of the product is much greater. In setting the price, particularly for a physical product, such as contraceptives, there are many issues to consider. If the product is priced too low, or provided free of charge, the consumer may perceive it as being low in quality.
On the other hand, if the price is too high, some will not be able to afford it. Social marketers must balance these considerations, and often end up charging at least a nominal fee to increase perceptions of quality and to confer a sense of "dignity" to the transaction.
These perceptions of costs and benefits can be determined through research, and used in positioning the product. Place "Place" describes the way that the product reaches the consumer.
For a tangible product, this refers to the distribution system--including the warehouse, trucks, sales force, retail outlets where it is sold, or places where it is given out for free. For an intangible product, place is less clear-cut, but refers to decisions about the channels through which consumers are reached with information or training.
This may include doctors' offices, shopping malls, mass media vehicles or in-home demonstrations. Another element of place is deciding how to ensure accessibility of the offering and quality of the service delivery.
By determining the activities and habits of the target audience, as well as their experience and satisfaction with the existing delivery system, researchers can pinpoint the most ideal means of distribution for the offering. Promotion Finally, the last "P" is promotion.
Because of its visibility, this element is often mistakenly thought of as comprising the whole of social marketing. However, as can be seen by the previous discussion, it is only one piece.From brand perception to supply chain efficiency—not to mention pricing, product innovation and, of course, assessing customer needs and behaviors—consumer products companies confront a long list of things they must get right.
To define consumer behavior: it is the study of consumers and the processes they use to choose, use (consume), and dispose of products and services. ABSTRACT - Motivation-need theories are reviewed, their implications to consumer behavior investigated, and the various findings and concepts integrated in formulating a .
Millennials – defined here as consumers aged years – represent a sizable demographic, ranging from 11% of the population in ageing Japan, to 18% in more youthful markets, such as Vietnam and South Africa, to 31% in extreme cases such as the UAE, where there is a .
Consumer behavior involves services and ideas as well as tangible products. The impact of consumer behavior on society is also of relevance. For example, aggressive marketing of high fat foods, or aggressive marketing of easy credit, may have serious repercussions for the national health and economy/5(9).
Consumer behaviour is the study of individuals, groups, or organizations and all the activities associated with the purchase, use and disposal of goods and services, including the consumer's emotional, mental and behavioural responses that precede or follow these activities.
Consumer behaviour emerged in the s and 50s as a distinct sub.