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Similarly, kallos was used differently from the English word beauty in that it first and foremost applied to humans and bears an erotic connotation. In Koine Greek, beauty was thus associated with "being of one's hour".
The Pythagorean school saw a strong connection between mathematics and beauty. In particular, they noted that objects proportioned according to the golden ratio seemed more attractive.
Plato considered beauty to be the Idea Form above all other Ideas. In terms of female human beauty, a woman whose appearance conforms to these tenets is still called a "classical beauty" or said to possess a "classical beauty", whilst the foundations laid by Greek and Roman artists have also supplied the standard for male beauty in western civilization.
Later, Renaissance and Humanist thinkers rejected this view, and considered beauty to be the product of rational order and harmonious proportions. Renaissance artists and architects such as Giorgio Vasari in his "Lives of Artists" criticised the Gothic period as irrational and barbarian. This point of view of Gothic art lasted until Romanticism, in the 19th century.
The goddess Venus is the classical personification of beauty. The Age of Reason saw a rise in an interest in beauty as a philosophical subject.
For example, Scottish philosopher Francis Hutcheson argued that beauty is "unity in variety and variety in unity".
Ye know on earth, and all ye need to know. The Romantic period In the Romantic period, Edmund Burke postulated a difference between beauty in its classical meaning and the sublime.
The concept of the sublime, as explicated by Burke and Kantsuggested viewing Gothic art and architecture, though not in accordance with the classical standard of beauty, as sublime.
American analytic philosopher Guy Sircello proposed his New Theory of Beauty as an effort to reaffirm the status of beauty as an important philosophical concept.
Psychological theories see beauty as a form of pleasure. Physical attractiveness Fresco of a Roman woman from Pompeiic. Standards of beauty have changed over time, based on changing cultural values. Historically, paintings show a wide range of different standards for beauty.
However, humans who are relatively young, with smooth skin, well-proportioned bodies, and regular features, have traditionally been considered the most beautiful throughout history. A strong indicator of physical beauty is " averageness ".
This was first noticed inwhen Francis Galton overlaid photographic composite images of the faces of vegetarians and criminals to see if there was a typical facial appearance for each. When doing this, he noticed that the composite images were more attractive compared to any of the individual images.
Physiologists have shown that women with hourglass figures are more fertile than other women due to higher levels of certain female hormones, a fact that may subconsciously condition males choosing mates. For instance, in some non-Western cultures in which women have to do work such as finding food, men tend to have preferences for higher waist-hip ratios.
Some feminists and doctors[ vague ] have suggested that the very thin models featured in magazines promote eating disorders and others have argued that the predominance of white women featured in movies and advertising leads to a Eurocentric concept of beauty, feelings of inferiority in women of color,  and internalized racism.
A multibillion-dollar industry of Japanese Aesthetic Salons exists for this reason.
The concept of noctcaelador describes an emotional attachment to, or adoration of, the night sky. People who do not fit the "beauty ideal" may be ostracized within their communities. The television sitcom Ugly Betty portrays the life of a girl faced with hardships due to society's unwelcoming attitudes toward those they deem unattractive.
However, a person may also be targeted for harassment because of their beauty. The documentary Beauty in the Eyes of the Beheld explores both the societal blessings and curses of female beauty through interviews of women considered beautiful.
Researchers have found that good looking students get higher grades from their teachers than students with an ordinary appearance. One study found that people low in physical attractiveness earn 5 to 10 percent less than ordinary looking people, who in turn earn 3 to 8 percent less than those who are considered good looking.
In the marriage market, women's looks are at a premium, but men's looks do not matter much. Augustine said of beauty "Beauty is indeed a good gift of God; but that the good may not think it a great good, God dispenses it even to the wicked. A history of a Western idea  and On Ugliness Oil paintings by Howard David Johnson and a brief introduction to oil painting; essays on oil painting,offering original oils for sale and commissions.
Fideisms Judaism is the Semitic monotheistic fideist religion based on the Old Testament's ( BCE) rules for the worship of Yahweh by his chosen people, the children of Abraham's son Isaac (c BCE).. Zoroastrianism is the Persian monotheistic fideist religion founded by Zarathustra (cc BCE) and which teaches that good must be chosen over evil in order to achieve salvation.
Beauty: The Eye of the Beholder Beauty is apparent in the moment in time we recognize it. The bases of its perception is not clearly defined by a skeleton pattern, but rather hidden within the recesses of our minds derived from the façades of what we love. A thing of beauty is a joy forever; Its loveliness increases; it will never Pass into nothingness [John Keats – Endymion] If you get simple beauty and nought else, You get about the best thing God invents [Robert Browning – Fra Lippo Lippi] `Beauty is truth, truth beauty,' - that is all Ye know on earth, and all ye need to know [John Keats – Ode on a Grecian Urn] The truth isn't always.
Beauty is in the eye of the beholder? There is strong pressure for individuals to become beautiful and to find a beautiful mate.
Every day, people spend time and money to become beautiful. Therein lies the statement “Beauty is in the eye of the beholder. ” The people that have the same view of beauty are the ones that usually end up together in a lasting relationship. Physical beauty, though, can lose its attractiveness if the .