It is a theory on dual process that describes how attitudes are changed and formed. It was developed by John Cacioppo and Richard E. It resembles a heuristic systematic information processing model that was developed around the same period by Shelly Chaiken.
Download this Term Paper in word format. Other scholars have been more critical of ELM. Unlike Schroeder and Areni, these scholars evaluate ELM as an actual model for psychological studies, as opposed to just a conceptual framework. The Morris, Woo, and Singh study found that the model had an excessively narrow focus on the cognitive aspects of audience elaboration, neglecting the emotional aspects.
The Cook, Moore, and Steel study found that ELM did not offer an actual causal explanation of persuasive communication and offered Positioning Theory for a causal explanation. To test ELM, one needs a stable control variable. In this case, that control variable is an argument that is universally seen as strong or weak.
The ELM predicts that a "strong" argument will produce a positive outcome for persuasive communication because of high elaboration, while a "weak" argument will produce a negative outcome because of low elaboration. In practice, is harder to find a universally "strong" or "weak" argument than it appears.
Even in everyday communication, the strength of an argument is largely determined by the particular outcome itself. A negative outcome, an unpersuaded audience, will usually insist that the argument presented to it was weak.
In a sense, the audience would be right because the argument is weak, that is to say, unpersuasive, to them.
There are two ways of looking at ELM. As a conceptual framework, ELM is excellent because it is flexible and testable. Actually, it is better used as a framework, or a paradigm, than as a model itself.
As a model, ELM suffers from some serious shortcomings. Although ELM accounts for virtually every type of outcome for persuasive communication, it cannot, by itself, predict the outcomes of a given persuasive communication. Ethical Reflection Persuasion is an ethically gray element of human interaction.
Indeed, the line between persuasion and manipulation is thin, as well as elastic. It is important to note that Western Civilization has a particularly tolerant attitude towards persuasion.
The acts of critical thinkingreasoning, and debate are highly valued, foundational elements of Western Civilization. Often, critical thinking is expressed through adversarial debate and reasoning effected through interpersonal conversation.
Thus, the foundational mental processes of Western Thought are often achieved through the persuasion of one person by another.
One can even argue that persuasion is essential to Western science and government. Reflecting the Western view of persuasion, Nilsen appears to believe that persuasion is ethical when it involves high motivation to listen and ability on the part of the audience, which is known as high "elaboration" in ELM terms.
However, persuasion would be less ethical when there is low elaboration, or when the audience is passively led into a certain mental position.
This is a promising compromise.
Elaboration Likelihood Model of Persuasion is a speech communication theory which attempts to explain the process of persuasion, particularly in regards to the effect of different source factors on the attitude of the audience (object of persuasion). The Elaboration Likelihood Model (Petty and Cacioppo, ), one of the most frequently cited models of persuasion, explains how shaping attitudes also shapes behaviors. Incorporating the principles of the Elaboration Likelihood Model into your messages and design will maximize your influence on user attitudes and, therefore, behaviors. The Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) explains how persuasion message works in changing the attitude of reader or viewer. It is very much important for corporations and advertisement agencies, in designing their market strategies and understanding the attitudes of peoples. Theory Persuasion is referred ≡ Menu.
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What is elaboration likelihood model (ELM) of persuasion? This model elaborates how attitudes are formed and changed. The crux for this model is the “elaboration Continuum” which varies from low elaboration to high elaboration or .
Essay on Elaboration Liklihood Model and Cas. Psychology- Unit 4- Essay question- 20/11/12 1) Outline the elaboration likelihood model of persuasion. Explain how a shoe manufacturer might use this knowledge to market new trainers (4+8) The elaboration likelihood model (ELM) of persuasion has two routes of persuasion or attitude change: these are the central route and the peripheral route.
– The purpose of this paper is to review, critique and develop a research agenda for the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM). The model was introduced by Petty and Cacioppo over three decades ago and has been modified, revised and extended. Read this free Social Issues Essay and other term papers, research papers and book reports.
|Elaboration Likelihood Model||Unlike earlier theories, the Elaboration Likelihood Model accounts for two different channels of persuasion. The first of these two channels is the "central route," where the audience considers a new idea logically to be persuaded.|
|Join Get Revising||The central route to persuasion — This route is taken when the audience is more likely to focus on the content of the message, i. Because this route tends to be more measured and well-thought out than the peripheral route any attitude changes made in this way tend to be more lasting.|
|Hovland-Yale model and Elaboration-Likelihood model essays - Document in A Level and IB Psychology||All About Theories for Communication.|
|About Sam Cook||Elaboration Define Elaboration at Dictionary.|
|Elaboration Likelihood Model Definition||The ELM proposes that under low elaboration likelihood, source factors serve as simple acceptance or rejection cues under moderate elaboration likelihood source factors guide the extent of thinking; and under high elaboration likelihood source factors are unimportant as cues or general motivators of thought but if relevant serve as persuasive arguments or help in interpreting arguments.|
Elaboration Likelihood Model. 1. Elaboration Likelihood Model ELM and Types of Persuasion The Elaboration Likelihood Model is a theory by Petty and /5(1). The Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) explains how persuasion message works in changing the attitude of reader or viewer.
It is very much important for corporations and advertisement agencies, in designing their market strategies and understanding the attitudes of peoples. Theory Persuasion is referred ≡ Menu.