Jun 05, Liam Bai rated it it was amazing A collection of thought-provoking essays on ethical issues that should concern every single one of us. How can philosophy and ethics be valuable if they only raise questions that cannot be definitively answered?
Precursors to the Classical Approach Though the first systematic account of utilitarianism was developed by Jeremy Bentham —the core insight motivating the theory occurred much earlier. Of these, Francis Hutcheson — is explicitly utilitarian when it comes to action choice. They believed that promoting human happiness was incumbent on us since it was approved by God.
This view was combined with a view of human motivation with egoistic elements. For example, Gay was curious about how to explain our practice of approbation and disapprobation of action and character. When we see an act that is vicious we disapprove of it. Further, we associate certain things with their effects, so that we form positive associations and negative associations that also underwrite our moral judgments.
Derek Parfit described Brad Hooker's book on rule-consequentialism Ideal Code, Real World as the "best statement and defence, so far, of one of the most important moral theories".  Rule-consequentialism may offer a means to reconcile pure consequentialism with deontological, or rules-based ethics. "In his new book, Ethics in the Real World, Mr. Singer picks up the topics of animal rights and poverty amelioration and runs quite far with themThis book is interesting because it offers a chance to witness this influential thinker grapple with more offbeat questions."--Dwight Garner, New York Times. Ethics. The field of ethics (or moral philosophy) involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong behavior. Philosophers today usually divide ethical theories into three general subject areas: .
This is a feature crucial to the theological approach, which would clearly be rejected by Hume in favor of a naturalistic view of human nature and a reliance on our sympathetic engagement with others, an approach anticipated by Shaftesbury below.
The theological approach to utilitarianism would be developed later by William Paley, for example, but the lack of any theoretical necessity in appealing to God would result in its diminishing appeal. This seems to have been an innate sense of right and wrong, or moral beauty and deformity.
Again, aspects of this doctrine would be picked up by Francis Hutcheson and David Hume — Hume, of course, would clearly reject any robust realist implications.
If the moral sense is like the other perceptual senses and enables us to pick up on properties out there in the universe around us, properties that exist independent from our perception of them, that are objective, then Hume clearly was not a moral sense theorist in this regard.
But perception picks up on features of our environment that one could regard as having a contingent quality.
There is one famous passage where Hume likens moral discrimination to the perception of secondary qualities, such as color. In modern terminology, these are response-dependent properties, and lack objectivity in the sense that they do not exist independent of our responses.
If an act is vicious, its viciousness is a matter of the human response given a corrected perspective to the act or its perceived effects and thus has a kind of contingency that seems unsettling, certainly unsettling to those who opted for the theological option. So, the view that it is part of our very nature to make moral discriminations is very much in Hume.
Here it sometimes becomes difficult to disentangle egoistic versus utilitarian lines of thought in Shaftesbury. Further, to be virtuous a person must have certain psychological capacities — they must be able to reflect on character, for example, and represent to themselves the qualities in others that are either approved or disapproved of.
Animals also lack the capacity for moral discrimination and would therefore seem to lack the moral sense. This raises some interesting questions. It would seem that the moral sense is a perception that something is the case.
It also has a propositional aspect, so that animals, which are not lacking in other senses are lacking in this one. The virtuous person is one whose affections, motives, dispositions are of the right sort, not one whose behavior is simply of the right sort and who is able to reflect on goodness, and her own goodness [see Gill].
Similarly, the vicious person is one who exemplifies the wrong sorts of mental states, affections, and so forth. Shaftesbury approached moral evaluation via the virtues and vices.
His utilitarian leanings are distinct from his moral sense approach, and his overall sentimentalism.Derek Parfit described Brad Hooker's book on rule-consequentialism Ideal Code, Real World as the "best statement and defence, so far, of one of the most important moral theories".
 Rule-consequentialism may offer a means to reconcile pure consequentialism with deontological, or rules-based ethics.
Ethics in the real world are quite difficult to explain and defend. Ethics came from the word “ethos,” ethos in turn means “character.” Character is determined through life experience, obstacles, temptations, frustrations, inner struggles, and dilemmas.
Aug 21, · Utilitarianism as an ethics theory primarily values the good of the community over the good of the individual. One might think of it as “the ends justify the means.” In other words, the metric for a good utilitarian action is the degree to which it benefits the community rather than the cost it has to that community.
Posts about examples of utilitarianism in today’s society examples of utilitarianism ethics real life examples of utilitarianism examples of utilitarianism in healthcare examples of utilitarianism in business exa written by T h e o • p h i l o g u e. If you answered yes, you were probably using a form of moral reasoning called "utilitarianism." Stripped down to its essentials, utilitarianism is a moral principle that holds that the morally right course of action in any situation is the one that produces the greatest balance of benefits over.
Nov 29, · Utilitarianism as an ethics theory primarily values the good of the community over the good of the individual. One might think of it as “the ends justify the means.” In other words, the metric for a good utilitarian action is the degree to which it benefits the community rather than the cost it .