The Deductive-Nomological Model of Scientific Explanation The account of the phenomena of nature provided by scientific knowledge, according to the empiricist consensus, did not consist in merely a description of the world around us, but rather in systematic and comprehensive explanation of these phenomena.
How to cite this article: Mesenchymal stem cells-derived exosomes are more immunosuppressive than microparticles in inflammatory arthritis. Theranostics ; 8 5: Mesenchymal stem cells MSCs release extracellular vesicles EVs that display a therapeutic effect in inflammatory disease models.
This prompted us to compare the function of exosomes Exos and microparticles MPs isolated from MSCs and investigate their immunomodulatory function in arthritis. The beneficial effect of Exos was associated with fewer plasmablasts and more Breg-like cells in lymph nodes. However, Exos were more efficient in suppressing inflammation in vivo.
Our work is the first demonstration of the therapeutic potential of MSCs-derived EVs in inflammatory arthritis. MSCs are characterized by a multilineage differentiation potential and paracrine function through the release of multiple growth factors, chemokines and cytokines.
One major role of MSCs is to suppress proliferation and function of cells of both innate and adaptive immunity [ 2 ]. Thanks to this property, they are widely investigated for their therapeutic properties in a variety of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, including type 2 diabetes, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis or rheumatoid arthritis RA.
Among inflammatory models, the collagen-induced arthritis CIA murine model is of particular interest since it reproduces the main symptoms of RA both at clinical and biological levels [ 7 ].
It is a widely used model of arthritis, easily reproducible and useful for therapies evaluation. Another model of inflammation is delayed-type hypersensitivity DTH model, which is highly reproducible and induced in one week.
This is therefore a rapid, easy to manipulate and useful model for anti-inflammatory treatment evaluation [ 6 ]. In addition to being released in the extracellular milieu, a number of factors are proposed to be packaged into extracellular vesicles EVs and migrate throughout the body via the bloodstream.
EVs are small vesicles produced by virtually all cell types, characterized by a phospholipid bilayer and containing a large variety of proteins, mRNAs, and miRNAs [ 12 ]. Two main types of EVs are exosomes, or small vesicles diameter below nmproduced in the endosomal compartment in so-called multivesicular bodies, and microvesicles, or microparticles ranging from to nm in diameterreleased by budding of the plasma membrane.
In addition to size, the International Society of Extracellular Vesicles recently proposed minimal criteria to define EVs, including morphology, mechanism of cellular release and biochemical parameters [ 13 ].
Therapeutic efficacy of MSCs-derived EVs MSCs-EVs has been reported in different disease models, such as myocardial infarction and reperfusion injury, liver and kidney injury, hind limb ischemia and inflammatory diseases for review, see [ 14 ].
While much interest in MSCs-EVs for the treatment of many diseases has been shown, little is known on their exact function. Moreover, no study has evaluated the role of MSCs-derived EVs in pre-clinical models relevant for rheumatoid arthritis [ 15 ].
In inflammatory conditions, an inhibitory function of MSCs-EVs on immune cell activation has been claimed in some studies while others reported absence of immunomodulatory effect [ 16 ].This shopping feature will continue to load items.
In order to navigate out of this carousel please use your heading shortcut key to navigate to the next or previous heading. Comprehensive Programs for Young Children.
In the last 2 decades, research and program development in the area of educational intervention have focused largely on very young children with ASDs because of earlier identification and evidence that early intensive intervention may result in substantially better outcomes.
9,10 Model early childhood educational programs for children with ASDs have. We would like to show you a description here but the site won’t allow us. Evaluate the Dn Model for Scientific Explanation.
The search for scientific knowledge extends far back into antiquity - Evaluate the Dn Model for Scientific Explanation introduction. At some point in this quest, at least by the time of Aristotle, philosophers recognized that a fundamental distinction should be drawn between two kinds of .
The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether oral finerenone (study drug), in addition to standard daily therapy, is effective and safe in treating patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and diabetic kidney disease, when compared to a placebo.
S Mithun Vishwanath K Patil et al./Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine ()SS Viscosity Viscosity measurement in triplicate was carried out using Brookfield Viscometer.The viscosity values are expressed as Mean依Standard deviation. Spreadability Spreadability was evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively by using spreadability apparatus.