Many are of view that Globalization is the most eminent threat to sovereignty of nations, still others think that the case is like this. Throughout most Human history People live in local economies. They either grew their own food or brought it from vicinity.
There is a widely held view that we live today in a world in which economic, political and technological relations have changed substantially. The changes they are referring to are: The emergence of giant corporations with branches in countries throughout the world.
Understanding Globalisation What is in this guide? This guide is meant to provide an understanding of globalisation. When people talk about “globalization” they are usually referring to technological, political, and economic changes which they believe make the world function in a different way from the way it did twenty or thirty years ago. This section of the urbanagricultureinitiative.com web site introduces some of the human rights issues surrounding Haiti and how the US have supported undemocratic regimes that have violated many rights. Links to other sources are also provided. As a follow-up to Tuesday’s post about the majority-minority public schools in Oslo, the following brief account reports the latest statistics on the cultural enrichment of schools in Austria. Vienna is the most fully enriched location, and seems to be in roughly the same situation as Oslo. Many thanks to Hermes for the translation from urbanagricultureinitiative.com
Such corporations dominate production of computers, cell phones, oil and petrol, food, tobacco, pharmaceutical and armaments. The annual budgets of many of these corporations are larger than those of small governments. As a result they are powerful players in the economic and political life of many countries Within the giant corporations, the production process of goods and services themselves have become globalised.
For example, where once motor plants produced cars from start to finish at one site, today different component parts are manufactured in different parts of the world and assembled in yet another.
In many instances the result is that labour intensive production such as in the production of clothing and footwear takes place in countries where wages and conditions of employment are low. Examples are found throughout the Far East where women and children are employed under conditions which would be outlawed in Western Europe and the United Is globalisation a threat to nation.
High value added production processes such as in the electronics industry takes place in countries with well paid and highly skilled labour such as Japan and Western Europe etc.
Computers, cell phones, and internet have brought about major changes in world communication. Not only is it easier to communicate across the globe, but countries and regions without access to this new technology are excluded from world developments. Just as local economies are influenced, and in many instances dominated by giant corporations, national governments can no longer make policy and run their countries in isolation from the rest of the world.
The United Nations, the Commonwealth, the European Union, the International Labour Organisation, the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund are examples of international bodies that influence the policies and choices that national governments can make.
The United States, Western Europe and Japan are today the key beneficiaries and leaders of the globalised world. Their historical status as colonial powers, with industrialized societies gave them a significant edge.
Countries of the South, many of which were former colonies, face enormous challenges of poverty and under-development. Many African, Asian and South American countries have not been in a position to respond as favourably to globalisation.
Over the last twenty years, the United States, Western Europe and Japan have come to own and control: Throughout the s, countries in Africa, Central South Africa, Latin America and Asia were forced to impose structural adjustment policies designed by the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank in order to secure loans to support their weak economies.
The effect of these policies has been dramatic cutbacks on government spending on education, health services and welfare in these countries. The result is that ordinary people are poorer and have less access to government services than they had a decade ago. The recent invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq by the United States and Britain are a brutal example of the inequality that exists at a political level in a globalised world.
Some people have argued that South Africa should resist the effects of globalization and refuse to participate in the globalised world.
This position assumes that countries can choose whether or not to participate in the new world order. In the previous section we gave some examples of the inequalities which exist in the world order and some of the ways in which developing countries have been forced to implement policies and strategies not necessarily of their choosing.
In this sense we need to understand globalization as a fact of life, much in the same way in which people in the last century had to accept the industrial revolution.
The challenge we face is how to respond to globalization and its impact. How to get your name on the housing waiting list? The challenge for a small nation like South Africa is how to respond creatively to the challenges posed by globalization in an environment in which we understand that we are not an equal player.
There are a number of ways in which our government is already responding creatively to this challenge: A well known example of such an association is the European Union which has consistently protected the rights of European farmers against competition from the developing world.
This strategy acknowledges that poverty, underdevelopment and inequality are the key challenges facing Africa. Through these relationships it is possible to argue for better terms of trade on a global scale, challenge intellectual property rights in relation to things such as cheaper medicines and resist strategies to enforce privatization of core government services from international agencies.
The Non-Aligned Movement is an important forum for the development of such relationships as are international conferences such as the Anti-Racism Conference and the World Summit on Sustainable Development both of which were hosted by the South African government.
The South African government is working hard to push for reforms within these institutions so that they are accountable to all the countries of the world rather than being dominated by the interests of the United States, Western Europe and Japan.
By unilateralism we mean a situation where one or in this case two nations on their own, outside the context of the United Nations, take it upon themselves to interpret and enforce international law.
A good example of this is the recent war against Iraq. After the Second World War, the United Nations was formed to develop, interpret and implement international law with the aim of preventing the dominance of one nation over others.
All nations agreed that in the interests of world peace it was necessary to prevent a situation from developing in which one or two powerful countries took it upon themselves to exercise authority in the world. Such a mutual process of self-regulation through the agency of the United Nations is called multilateralism.
Their actions are a threat to the principal of multi-lateralism which has been in place since the end of the Second World War. It is important to struggle for the principal of multilateralism and the authority of a body such as the United Nations.Globalisation refers to the process by which the world’s local and regional economies, societies, and cultures have become integrated together through a global network of communication, transportation and trade.
With reference to industry it is also the shift to a globalised economic system dominated by supranational (across and above the governments of nations) corporate trade and banking. Of the many criticisms of globalization, the prominent critique relates to the fact that globalization erodes national sovereignty and takes away the power of governments.
By allowing international corporations and multinational businesses to set the economic (and often, the political agenda), critics argue that the nation state becomes.
The impact of globalization varies with regard to the strength of the state. All states are affected in the entire process of globalization but a threat to the sovereignty and autonomy of the state gets more affected in respect of weak states than strong ones.
Offers an overview of some aspects of globalization and aims to identify ways in which countries can tap the gains of this process, while remaining realistic about its potential and its risks. Globalization: Threat or Opportunity?
By IMF Staff April 12, (Corrected January ) How real is the perceived threat that competition from. Globalization or globalisation is the process of interaction and integration between people, As a dominating country's culture is introduced into a receiving country through globalization, it can become a threat to the diversity of local culture.
The contributions that foreign students make to host nation . This section of the urbanagricultureinitiative.com web site introduces some of the human rights issues surrounding Haiti and how the US have supported undemocratic regimes that have violated many rights.
Links to other sources are also provided.