The data collected by researchers using these techniques consist of: After collecting data, qualitative psychological researchers' goal is to examine their data in depth and in detail. Most psychological researchers probably use both types of method.
The purpose of this section is to introduce you to the idea of qualitative research and how it is related to quantitative research and give you some orientation to the major types of qualitative research data, approaches and methods.
There are a number of important questions you should consider before undertaking qualitative research: Do you want to generate new theories or hypotheses? Too often in applied social research especially in economics and psychology we have our graduate students jump from doing a literature review on a topic of interest to writing a research proposal complete with theories and hypotheses based on current thinking.
Ethnography (from Greek ἔθνος ethnos "folk, people, nation" and γράφω grapho "I write") is the systematic study of people and cultures. It is designed to explore cultural phenomena where the researcher observes society from the point of view of the subject of the study. An ethnography is a means to represent graphically and in writing the . Key reporting guidelines, shaded green, are displayed first. Show the most recently added records first.. 1; Standards for reporting qualitative research: a synthesis of recommendations. In psychology, qualitative research has come to be defined as research whose findings are not arrived at by statistical or other quantitative procedures. Qualitative research is often said to be naturalistic. That is, its goal is to understand behaviour in a natural setting. Two other goals attributed to qualitative research are understanding a phenomenon from the perspective of the research.
What gets missed is the direct experience of the phenomenon. We should probably require of all students that before they mount a study they spend some time living with the phenomenon. Before doing that multivariate analysis of gender-based differences in wages, go observe several work contexts and see how gender tends to be perceived and seems to affect wage allocations.
Before looking at the effects of a new psychotropic drug for the mentally ill, go spend some time visiting several mental Qualitative research methods in psychology treatment contexts to observe what goes on.
If you do, you are likely to approach the existing literature on the topic with a fresh perspective born of your direct experience. This is where most of the more interesting and valuable new theories and hypotheses will originate.
If this advice was followed literally, graduate school would be prolonged even more than is currently the case. We need to use qualitative research as the basis for direct experience, but we also need to know when and how to move on to formulate some tentative theories and hypotheses that can be explicitly tested.
Do you need to achieve a deep understanding of the issues? I believe that qualitative research has special value for investigating complex and sensitive issues. For example, if you are interested in how people view topics like God and religion, human sexuality, the death penalty, gun control, and so on, my guess is that you would be hard-pressed to develop a quantitative methodology that would do anything more than summarize a few key positions on these issues.
While this does have its place and its done all the timeif you really want to try to achieve a deep understanding of how people think about these topics, some type of in-depth interviewing is probably called for.
Are you willing to trade detail for generalizability? Qualitative research certainly excels at generating information that is very detailed. Of course, there are quantitative studies that are detailed also in that they involve collecting lots of numeric data.
But in detailed quantitative research, the data themselves tend to both shape and limit the analysis.
For example, if you collect a simple interval-level quantitative measure, the analyses you are likely to do with it are fairly delimited e. And, generalizing tends to be a fairly straightforward endeavor in most quantitative research.
After all, when you collect the same variable from everyone in your sample, all you need to do to generalize to the sample as a whole is to compute some aggregate statistic like a mean or median. Things are not so simple in most qualitative research.
The data are more "raw" and are seldom pre-categorized. Consequently, you need to be prepared to organize all of that raw detail. And there are almost an infinite number of ways this could be accomplished. Even generalizing across a sample of interviews or written documents becomes a complex endeavor.
The detail in most qualitative research is both a blessing and a curse. On the positive side, it enables you to describe the phenomena of interest in great detail, in the original language of the research participants.
In fact, some of the best "qualitative" research is often published in book form, often in a style that almost approaches a narrative story.Qualitative research is multimethod in focus, involving an interpretive, naturalistic approach to its subject matter.
This means that qualitative researchers study things in their natural settings, attempting to make sense of, or interpret, phenomena in terms of the meanings people bring to them.
Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Methods in Social Marketing Research. by Nedra Kline Weinreich. Introduction. Traditionally, research in the field of health promotion has followed in the footsteps of its "older brother," medicine.
Case studies provide rich qualitative data and have high levels of ecological validity. Further Information. Content analysis is a research tool used to indirectly observe the presence of certain words, images or concepts within the media (e.g.
advertisements, books films etc.). (). Psychology research methods. Retrieved from https. Volume 8, No. 1, Art. 30 – January Issues in Learning About and Teaching Qualitative Research Methods and Methodology in the Social Sciences. Franz Breuer & Margrit Schreier. Abstract: For many qualitative researchers in the social sciences, learning about and teaching qualitative research methods and methodology raises .
Volume 13, No. 1, Art. 30 – January Participatory Research Methods: A Methodological Approach in Motion. Jarg Bergold & Stefan Thomas. Abstract: This article serves as an introduction to the FQS special issue "Participatory Qualitative Research." In recent years there has been a resurgence of interest in participatory research .
Research psychology encompasses the study of behavior for use in academic settings, and contains numerous areas. It contains the areas of abnormal psychology, biological psychology, cognitive psychology, comparative psychology, developmental psychology, personality psychology, social psychology and.