Word Origin for science C
Uses[ edit ] In its ancient usage, hypothesis referred to a summary of the plot of a classical drama. For proper evaluation, the framer of a hypothesis needs to define specifics in operational terms.
A hypothesis requires more work by the researcher in order to either confirm or disprove it. In due course, a confirmed hypothesis may become part of a theory or occasionally may grow to become a theory itself.
Normally, scientific hypotheses have the form of a mathematical model. In entrepreneurial science, a hypothesis is used to formulate provisional ideas within a business setting. The formulated hypothesis is then evaluated where either the hypothesis is proven to be "true" or "false" through a verifiability - or falsifiability -oriented experiment.
It might predict the outcome of an experiment in a laboratory setting or the observation of a phenomenon in nature. The prediction may also invoke statistics and only talk about probabilities. Karl Popperfollowing others, has argued that a hypothesis must be falsifiableand that one cannot regard a proposition or theory as scientific if it does not admit the possibility of being shown false.
Other philosophers of science have rejected the criterion of falsifiability or supplemented it with other criteria, such as verifiability e.
The scientific method involves experimentation, to test the ability of some hypothesis to adequately answer the question under investigation. In contrast, unfettered observation is not as likely to raise unexplained issues or open questions in science, as would the formulation of a crucial experiment to test the hypothesis.
A thought experiment might also be used to test the hypothesis as well.
In framing a hypothesis, the investigator must not currently know the outcome of a test or that it remains reasonably under continuing investigation. Only in such cases does the experiment, test or study potentially increase the probability of showing the truth of a hypothesis.
If one cannot assess the predictions by observation or by experiencethe hypothesis needs to be tested by others providing observations. For example, a new technology or theory might make the necessary experiments feasible. Scientific hypothesis[ edit ] People refer to a trial solution to a problem as a hypothesis, often called an " educated guess "   because it provides a suggested outcome based on the evidence.
However, some scientists reject the term "educated guess" as incorrect. Experimenters may test and reject several hypotheses before solving the problem. According to Schick and Vaughn,  researchers weighing up alternative hypotheses may take into consideration: Testability compare falsifiability as discussed above Parsimony as in the application of " Occam's razor ", discouraging the postulation of excessive numbers of entities Scope — the apparent application of the hypothesis to multiple cases of phenomena Fruitfulness — the prospect that a hypothesis may explain further phenomena in the future Conservatism — the degree of "fit" with existing recognized knowledge-systems.
Working hypothesis A working hypothesis is a hypothesis that is provisionally accepted as a basis for further research  in the hope that a tenable theory will be produced, even if the hypothesis ultimately fails.
Working hypotheses are often used as a conceptual framework in qualitative research. Here they act like a useful guide to address problems that are still in a formative phase. Notably, Imre Lakatos and Paul FeyerabendKarl Popper's colleague and student, respectively, have produced novel attempts at such a synthesis.
Hypotheses, concepts and measurement[ edit ] Concepts in Hempel's deductive-nomological model play a key role in the development and testing of hypotheses.
Most formal hypotheses connect concepts by specifying the expected relationships between propositions. When a set of hypotheses are grouped together they become a type of conceptual framework. When a conceptual framework is complex and incorporates causality or explanation it is generally referred to as a theory.
According to noted philosopher of science Carl Gustav Hempel "An adequate empirical interpretation turns a theoretical system into a testable theory: The hypothesis whose constituent terms have been interpreted become capable of test by reference to observable phenomena.
Frequently the interpreted hypothesis will be derivative hypotheses of the theory; but their confirmation or disconfirmation by empirical data will then immediately strengthen or weaken also the primitive hypotheses from which they were derived.
These might be viewed as strings which are not part of the network but link certain points of the latter with specific places in the plane of observation.
By virtue of those interpretative connections, the network can function as a scientific theory.
In "actual scientific practice the process of framing a theoretical structure and of interpreting it are not always sharply separated, since the intended interpretation usually guides the construction of the theoretician.
Statistical hypothesis testing When a possible correlation or similar relation between phenomena is investigated, such as whether a proposed remedy is effective in treating a disease, the hypothesis that a relation exists cannot be examined the same way one might examine a proposed new law of nature.
In such an investigation, if the tested remedy shows no effect in a few cases, these do not necessarily falsify the hypothesis. Instead, statistical tests are used to determine how likely it is that the overall effect would be observed if the hypothesized relation does not exist.Science Fair Project Ideas.
Below is a list of great ideas for potential science fair projects. Pick something you're interested in and try it out for size. Find a Science Fair Project Idea. Looking for inspiration for a science fair project?
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The Topic Selection Wizard tool can help you find a project you will enjoy! Science definition, a branch of knowledge or study dealing with a body of facts or truths systematically arranged and showing the operation of general laws: the mathematical sciences. See more.
A new hypothesis explains how prehistoric people transported huge slabs of rock to Stonehenge. We had just a handful of students. And we were able to move the blue stones of Stonehenge, just seven of us, pushing.
We didn't even have to push very hard. We could go twenty miles a day. Young suspects. The facial feedback hypothesis states that facial movement can influence emotional experience.
For example, an individual who is forced to smile during a social event will actually come to find the event more of an enjoyable experience. How To Get Published.
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