Posted on April 8, by Scott Alexander I. I have a huge bias against growth mindset.
Marzano The idea of communicating high expectations for all students burst onto the K—12 education scene in the late s. Students quickly recognize this differential treatment and begin to act in accordance with the expectations that the treatment implies. Having high expectations for all students is, of course, a good and noble goal.
Two problems arise here, however. First, expectations are subtle and difficult to change. Teachers may be unaware that they have low expectations for some students; even when they become aware, they may have difficulty changing their expectations because their beliefs and biases have developed over the years.
Second, what actually communicates expectations to students is teacher behavior. A Four-Step Process In working with teachers on this issue, we have found it helpful to think of communicating high expectations as an instructional strategy that involves four steps.
Identify students for whom you have low expectations. Identify similarities in students. This is the most difficult part of the strategy because none of us likes to acknowledge that we automatically form conclusions about certain types of people.
For example, a teacher might find that the students for whom she has low expectations all tend to look a certain way, speak a certain way, or come from a certain ethnic group. Research has demonstrated that such characteristics are commonly the basis for early expectations about students. To some extent, all adults have preconceived notions regarding different groups of people, simply because they are influenced by the biases of the people who raised them and the people with whom they interacted as children and by their personal experiences growing up.
A bigot or a racist knowingly or unknowingly behaves in accordance with such notions. However, an individual who actively seeks to behave in a manner that is not controlled by biased patterns of thoughts or behaviors is anything but a bigot.
Identify differential treatment of low-expectancy students. Students cannot know what teachers are thinking, but they do observe how teachers behave—and they make inferences on the basis of these behaviors. In general, there are two ways that teachers treat low-expectancy students differently.
One involves the general affective tone established between teacher and student. With low-expectancy students, teachers tend to make less eye contact, smile less, make less physical contact, and engage in less playful or light dialogue. The second way involves the type and quality of interactions regarding academic content.
Teachers tend to call on low-expectancy students less often, ask less challenging questions, delve into their answers less deeply, and reward them for less rigorous responses. Teachers can determine their differential treatment of low-expectancy students simply by noting and recording their behavior toward those students.
Treat low-expectancy and high-expectancy students the same. It is fairly easy to establish a positive affective tone with all students. Teachers simply make sure that they exhibit the same positive behaviors to all students—smiling, involving students in good-natured discussions, and engaging in appropriate physical contact.
All students will typically respond well to this type of behavior.Teacher expectancy effect is defined as “the impact that a teacher’s expectations about a student’s performance may have on the student’s actual achievements” (Schaefer & Lamm, , p. ). Classroom observation videos for teacher training and INSET.
Families Learning Together. Helping primary children make best progress in maths by involving parents. Achievements in Public Health, Control of Infectious Diseases. Deaths from infectious diseases have declined markedly in the United States during the 20th century ().This decline contributed to a sharp drop in infant and child mortality (1,2) and to the year increase in life expectancy (2).
Expectancy theory (or expectancy theory of motivation) proposes an individual will behave or act in a certain way because they are motivated to select a specific behavior over other behaviors due to what they expect the result of that selected behavior will be.
If you are a teacher, you are welcome to change the assignments, but please let me know via this link. Pygmalion in the Classroom: Teacher Expectation and Pupils' Intellectual Development [Robert Rosenthal, Lenore Jacobson] on urbanagricultureinitiative.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
When first published in , (later updated in ), Pygmalion in the Classroom was received with almost universal acclaim for its ground breaking research. The "Pygmalion Phenomenon" is the self-fulfilling .