They wrote on subjects ranging from current affairs to art criticism, and they wrote in every conceivable format. The Swiss philosophe Jean-Jacques Rousseaufor example, wrote a political tract, a treatise on education, constitutions for Poland and Corsica, an analysis of the effects of the theater on public morals, a best-selling novel, an opera, and a highly influential autobiography. The philosophes wrote for a broadly educated public of readers who snatched up every Enlightenment book they could find at their local booksellers, even when rulers or churches tried to forbid such works.
The Scientific Revolution, 2 If I have seen further it is because I have stood on the shoulders of giants. He has become for me wholly other, one of the tiny handful of supreme geniuses who have shaped the categories of the human intellect, a man not finally reducible to the criteria by which we comprehend our fellow beings.
A Biography of Isaac Newton We can't imagine that the Scientific Revolution of the 16th and 17th centuries took place in a vacuum. That is, we can't assume that modern science simply came to be in a momentary flash of brilliance, nor that Copernicus or Kepler or Galileo just woke up one morning and pronounced their discoveries to a world which became somehow instantaneously different see Lecture 6.
Past historians have looked at the history of modern science from precisely this point of view. Like the Renaissance, the Scientific Revolution has been interpreted as explosive, a surge forward, a watershed.
On this score, John Herman Randall once remarked that: One gathers, indeed, from our standard histories of the sciences, written mostly in the last generation, that the world lay steeped in the darkness and night of superstition, till one day Copernicus bravely cast aside the errors of his fellows, looked at the heavens and observed nature, the first man since the Greeks to do so, and discovered.
The next day, so to speak, Galileo climbed the leaning Tower of Pisa, dropped down his weights, and as they thudded to the ground, Aristotle was crushed to earth and the laws of falling bodies sprang into being.
Even Isaac Newton was aware of the debt he owed to the past.
Although this tradition was based largely on the work of AristotleSt. AugustineAquinas and Dantethe scientific revolutionaries sought to break free from these traditional beliefs. They had to forge a new identity. The scientific revolutionaries needed to transcend PlatoAristotle, GalenPtolemy or Aquinas -- this was their conscious decision.
They not only criticized but replaced the medieval world view with their own. And this quest for identity would culminate in a world view that was scientific, mathematical, methodological and mechanical.
However, this revolution was accomplished by utilizing the medieval roots of science which, in turn, meant the science of the classical age of Greece and Rome as well as the refinements to that science made by Islamic scholars.
They used what they found at hand to create a new outlook on the cosmos, the natural world and ultimately, the world of man. The antecedents to this revolution in thought are found in the 11th and 12th centuries when most of the ideas of the ancient Greek philosophers were wed together into a new body of beliefs.
These beliefs were living and vital. We encounter them in the 12th century Renaissance see Lecture 2. We find them at the school of Chartres in the midth century, or at the medical school at Salerno near Naples in At Toledo in Spain, 92 Arabic works had been translated along with Ptolemy in By the 12th century, Arabic science and mathematics had found its way to Oxford in England and to Padua in Italy.
From the early 12th century, then, there existed in Europe a continuous tradition of scientific endeavor. And although this science was temporarily overshadowed by the intellectual bulk of Aristotle in the midth century, this tradition was living in the 15th and 16th centuries and well into the 17th.
This was the background and education of the scientific revolutionaries. We must see their discoveries as shaped and formed by this core of accepted ideas and not just spinning out of empty space. The revolution in science did not occur quickly.
It developed over time. Although the medieval Church earned absolute power, authority and obedience, science and scientific thinking did flourish during the five centuries preceding that watershed we call the Scientific Revolution.
By the 17th century, science, scientific thinking and the experimental method had become the territory of more men, and by the midth century, increasing numbers of women would be included as well.
Science was also diffused to a large audience through books. Each time a Galileo, Descartes, or Newton published their findings, a wave of replies followed. And each of these replies was followed by other replies so that what quickly resulted was an ever growing body of scientific literature.
And, of course, there was at the same time, an increasing number of men and women who were eager for such knowledge."The philosophes of the Enlightenment stood on the shoulders of the men of the Scientific Revolution." The scientists of this period rejected the old world view of Aristotle and Ptolemy.
The scientists of this period rejected the old world view of Aristotle and Ptolemy. Nov 25, · “The Philosophers Of The Enlightenment Stood On The Shoulders Of The Men Of The Scientific Revolution.” Nebil Berhanu DBQ The statement that, The philosophers of the Enlightenment stood on the shoulders of the men of the Scientific Revolution.
is quite accurate. To start, the developments of the Scientific Revolution were widespread and greatly influenced the Enlightenment era of philosophy. One of the important scientific developments during the era was the basis for the modern-day scientific method, created by the ideas of Francis Bacon and Rene Descartes.
Lecture 7 The Medieval Synthesis and the Secularization of Human Knowledge: The Scientific Revolution, (2) If I have seen further it is because I have stood on the shoulders of giants.
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason) was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, the "Century of Philosophy"..
French historians traditionally place the Enlightenment between (the year that Louis XIV died) and (the beginning of the French Revolution). The enlightenment was mostly based on reason and own thinking.
This was done methodically just as one would use the scientific method in the scientific revolution.