The Manchester Mark 1 computer developed by Frederic Calland Williams — and Tom Kilburn — ; historically significant because of its pioneering inclusion of index registers. EDSAC — the first complete, fully functional computer inspired by the von Neumann architecturethe basis of every modern computer — constructed by Maurice Wilkes —
An essay has been defined in a variety of ways. One definition is a "prose composition with a focused subject of discussion" or a "long, systematic discourse". Aldous Huxleya leading essayist, gives guidance on the subject. Furthermore, Huxley argues that "essays belong to a literary species whose extreme variability can be studied most effectively within a three-poled frame of reference".
These three poles or worlds in which the essay may exist are: The personal and the autobiographical: The Who invented the essay format that feel most comfortable in this pole "write fragments of reflective autobiography and look at the world through the keyhole of anecdote and description".
The objective, the factual, and the concrete particular: The essayists that write from this pole "do not speak directly of themselves, but turn their attention outward to some literary or scientific or political theme. Their art consists of setting forth, passing judgment upon, and drawing general conclusions from the relevant data".
In this pole "we find those essayists who do their work in the world of high abstractions", who are never personal and who seldom mention the particular facts of experience.
Huxley adds that the most satisfying essays " In English essay first meant "a trial" or "an attempt", and this is still an alternative meaning.
The Frenchman Michel de Montaigne — was the first author to describe his work as essays; he used the term to characterize these as "attempts" to put his thoughts into writing, and his essays grew out of his commonplacing.
For the rest of his life, he continued revising previously published essays and composing new ones. Ben Jonson first used the word essayist in English inaccording to the Oxford English Dictionary. History The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view of the subject.
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January Learn how and when to remove this template message Europe English essayists included Robert Burton — and Sir Thomas Browne — In the 18th and 19th centuries, Edmund Burke and Samuel Taylor Coleridge wrote essays for the general public.
The early 19th century, in particular, saw a proliferation of great essayists in English — William HazlittCharles LambLeigh Hunt and Thomas de Quincey all penned numerous essays on diverse subjects.
In the 20th century, a number of essayists tried to explain the new movements in art and culture by using essays e. Whereas some essayists used essays for strident political themes, Robert Louis Stevenson and Willa Cather wrote lighter essays.
Zuihitsu As with the novelessays existed in Japan several centuries before they developed in Europe with a genre of essays known as zuihitsu — loosely connected essays and fragmented ideas. Zuihitsu have existed since almost the beginnings of Japanese literature.
Many of the most noted early works of Japanese literature are in this genre. Notable examples include The Pillow Book c. Another noteworthy difference from Europe is that women have traditionally written in Japan, though the more formal, Chinese-influenced writings of male writers were more prized at the time.
Forms and styles This section describes the different forms and styles of essay writing. These forms and styles are used by an array of authors, including university students and professional essayists.
Cause and effect The defining features of a "cause and effect" essay are causal chains that connect from a cause to an effect, careful language, and chronological or emphatic order.
A writer using this rhetorical method must consider the subjectdetermine the purposeconsider the audiencethink critically about different causes or consequences, consider a thesis statement, arrange the parts, consider the languageand decide on a conclusion.
It is grouped by the object chunking or by point sequential. The comparison highlights the similarities between two or more similar objects while contrasting highlights the differences between two or more objects.
Compare and contrast is arranged emphatically. Determining the purpose, considering the audience, creating a dominant impression, using descriptive language, and organizing the description are the rhetorical choices to consider when using a description. A description is usually arranged spatially but can also be chronological or emphatic.
The focus of a description is the scene. Description uses tools such as denotative language, connotative language, figurative languagemetaphorand simile to arrive at a dominant impression. Dialectic In the dialectic form of the essay, which is commonly used in philosophythe writer makes a thesis and argument, then objects to their own argument with a counterargumentbut then counters the counterargument with a final and novel argument.
This form benefits from presenting a broader perspective while countering a possible flaw that some may present. This type is sometimes called an ethics paper.Our dedicated experts offer students college essay help, with one-on-one admissions essay coaching and an in-depth on-demand course.
A thesis statement is generally a single sentence (The last sentence of Intro) within the introductory paragraph of the history (or thesis) essay, which makes a claim or tells the reader exactly what to expect from the rest of the text. It may be the writer's interpretation of what the author or.
Albrecht Dürer: The Genius with a Great Soul. Albrecht Dürer was not only the greatest artist of the Northern Renaissance, but also a unique personality, his genius coexisting with a pure, noble character.
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Online Library of Liberty. A collection of scholarly works about individual liberty and free markets. A project of Liberty Fund, Inc.
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